Imitegekere mu Rwanda mbere ya 1959

Ikinyecumi 1920-1930

Nyuma y’inama yo kwigabanya Afurika yahurije abanyaburayi i Berlin mu Budage mu 1884-1885, umuco wo kwandika wari umaze gusesekara mu Rwanda. Mu mpera z’icyo kinyecumi umuryango nyarwanda washyizwe mu cyiswe amoko atatatu: abatutsi, abahutu n’abatwa    a) Ubwoko bw’Abatutsi (tutsi) butarenze 14%, bwarimo abategetsi n’abakire bakoreshaga umuco witwaga ubuhake ushingiye ku bucakara bw’abahutu mu bworozi bw’inka.  b) Ubwoko bw’Abahutu (hutu) bugeze kuri 85% bwarimo abahinzi bavagamo n’abacakara n’abagaragu mu bworozi bw’inka n’ibikingi.     C) Ubwoko bw’Abatwa (twa) butarenze 1% bwari butunzwe no guhiga, kubumba inkono, “gusega” no gukoreshwa n’abategetsi ibyo badashoboye kwikorerera, birimo no “kwikiza” umwanzi. Ni muri icyo kinyecumi ubutegetsi bw’Ababiligi na Kiriziya Gatolika byahinduye cyane ubwo buryo bwo guhaka. Aho byabanje guhinduka ni ahari hegereye ibigo by’Ababiligi n’ahakorerwaga ubucuruzi. Ahandi byagiye bihinduka buhoro buhoro bigenda bisakara bicengera no mu misozi ya kure. Muri iyo myaka kandi mu Rwanda hari ibice bitatu byari bifite ingufu mu butegetsi: Ubwami bwari bufite ikicaro i Nyanza, Kiriziya Gatolika yari ifite ikicaro i Kabgayi, n’ubutegetsi bw’Ababiligi bwari bufite ikicaro i Kigali. Guhera mu 1925 ubutegetsi bw’Ababiligi bwarahariye Kiliziya Gatorika kwigisha no kuyobora amashuri, Kiliziya Gatorika nayo ihabonera uburyo bworoshye bwo gukwirakwiza ubukristu mu gihugu. Ni uko ubuyobozi bw’Ababiligi n’ubwa Kiriziya bwaje kuba icyerekezo ku banyarwanda bashakaga kuregera akarengane bumvaga batewe n’abayobozi babo kavukire. Ni muri icyo gihe ubuyobozi bw’Ababiligi bwaje gushyiraho amategeko yo kurwanya no guhana amakosa akomeye ku kiremwa muntu agamije gukuraho akarengane gakabije katerwaga n’imico itari myiza abategetsi bakoreraga abo bategekaga. Ariko n’ubwo Ababiligi bashyizeho ayo mategeko yo kubaha ikiremwa muntu kurushaho, na bo byarangiye bateye akandi karengane, cyane cyane muri rubanda ruto, igihe batangije kurukoresha ku ngufu imilimo batahemberwaga.

Hagati ya 1930 na 1940

Ni muri iyo myaka Ababiligi bashyizeho ko buri munyarwanda agomba guhabwa indangamuntu. Bivugwa ko Umwami Yuhi Musinga w’ u Rwanda ariwe wasabye Résident Morthehan kwandika ubwoko mw’ibuku y’irangamuntu mu gihe buri munyarwanda yagombaga guhabwa ingana n’iy’undi. Nyuma yaho kubera ko Kiliziya yamubonyemo kwanga icengera ry’idini n’imyigishirize nyamahanga mu gihugu, byaviriyemo Umwami Yuhi Musinga gucirwa iKamembe mu Cyinyaga n’i Moba muri Kongo, maze mu 1931 bamusimbuza umuhungu we Rudahigwa wari ufite imyaka 18 y’amavuko, wafashe izina ry’ Ubwami Mutara III. Kuva ubwo Ababiligi na Kiliziya bifashishije Uwami mushya n’ubuyobozi bw’abatutsi kugirango bayobore igihugu. Umwaka wa 1933 wabayemo ikintu cyazanye impinduka mu Rwanda. Nibwo hatangiye kwandikwa ikinyamakuru “Kinyamateka” cyandikaga amakuru mu kinyarwanda kandi cyafashije guhindura imitekerereze y’Abanyarwanda. Padiri Louis de Lacger yemeza ko iyo Kinyamateka yabaye intwaro ikomeye y’abakristu mu guhangana n’ubuyobozi bwo mu ruhande rw’umwami bwari buranzwe n’ubupagani bukabije, harimo kwiyemera kw’ abategetsi ba cyami, kwica bagakiza, kurenganya no guhana uwo bashatse n’uko babishatse nta kivurira ndetse no gusambanya abagore b’abandi k’ uburyo bukabije.

Hagati ya 1940 na 1950

Mu 1946 niho l’ONU yasinyanye n’uBubiligi icyiswe Tutelle k’uRwanda. Muri icyo kinyecumi, ikinyamakuru Kinyamateka cyaje guhinduka ivugiro rya rubanda batari basanzwe bafite aho bavugira. Gregoire Kayibanda aho abereye umuyobozi mukuru wa Kinyamateka kuva mu 1955 kugeza 1959, yayikoresheje mu gukangurira rubanda ibyerekeye impinduramatware y’ imitegekere. Si imbaraga za rubanda na Kiliziya gusa zashakaga iyo mihindurire, na Loni yari yatangiye gusaba iyo mihinduririre kuko ubushakashatsi k’ubuhake bwari bwarakozwe mu 1946 bwari bwerekanye ko ntaho butaniye n’ ubucakara (quasi esclavagisme). N’ubwo u Bubiligi bwari bufite ububasha mu mitegekere, abayobozi gakondo bakomezaga umuco wo guhana uwo bashatse no gutanga igihano bashatse mubo bayoboraga. Ubutegetsi bwose na bwo bwari bwaragumye mu maboko y’abayobozi gakondo, bose bakaba kandi bari abo mu bwoko bw’abatutsi kandi ni nabo gusa babonaga inyungu amajyambere n’amashuri byari byarazanye. Mu 1948 habayeho “Déclaration Universelle des droits de l’homme. Loni yasabye ko iyo déclaration ishyirwa mu bikorwa mu  bihugu byose biri kuri tutelle yayo. Mu 1949, abagenzuzi ba Loni baje kugenzura imitegekere y’uRwanda maze bamagana ko itubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu, ni uko basaba ko hashyirwaho ubutegetsi burimo abaturage  bo mu nzego zose. 

Hagati y’kinyecumi cy’1950 n’1960: ubwisanzure bw’abakolonijwe

Intambara ya kabiri y’isi yose yarangiye USA n’Uburusiya ari byo bibaye ibihugu bikomeye cyane kw’isi. Ibi bihugu bibiri byari bimaze gukomera cyane byategetse ibihugu bindi by’iBurayi kubifungurira amayira yo mu bihugu byari byarakoronije. Icyakora u Burusiya na USA byaje kutumvikana kubera inzira z’ubukungu zinyuranye byari byarahisemo. USA yahisemo isoko ryigenga (capitalisme) naho ubuRusiya buhitamo isoko risaranganya riringaniza (communisme). Loni niyo yaje kuba igikoresho ibi bihangange bibiri byakoreshaga mu kuyobora isi. Nibwo havutse urundi ruhande rw’abatagize aho babogamiye basaba ubwigenge bw’ibihugu byari byarakoronijwe cyangwa byari muri tutelle. Abari bakuriye urwo ruhande rw’abatabogamye bari 4 : uwategekaga Indonesiya ariwe Soekarno, Pandit Nehru wategeka Ubuhinde, Nasser wategeka Misiri n’uwategeka Yugoslavia ariwe Marechal Tito. Abagenzuzi ba Loni baje kugenzura imitegekere y’uRwanda mu 1949 bamaze gutanga amabwiriza ku mpinduka zikenewe mu Rwanda u Bubiligi bwashyizeho gahunda y’imyaka icumi yo kuvugurura imitegekere yo mu Rwanda kuva mu 1950 kugeza mu 1960, ari byo byiswe “Plan décennal de Développement 1950-1960" Mu bintu bigaragara iyo gahunda yateganyaga harimo guca ubuhake no kugabana inka hagati ya nyirazo n’abagaragu be. Itegeko ribyemeza ryatangajwe kw’italiki ya mbere Mata 1954 rishyizweho umukono n’umwami ubwe. N’ubwo bamwe bavuga ubu ko icyo cyemezo cy’Umwami Rudahigwa cyo gukuraho Ubuhake no kwemera ko inka zigabanwa hagati ya ba nyirazo n’abagaragu babo ari itangizwa rya demokarasi mu Rwanda, Kayibanda na bagenzi be babonye harimo uburiganya kuko babonaga ko kugabana inka gusa ibikingi bitagabanyijwe ari uguhembera ubuhake bw’ubutaka. Ku byamagana ni byo byabaye ingambi ya politiki yambere ikomeye Grégoire Kayibanda yarwanye ubwo yamenyekanaga abyamagana nk’umwanditsi mukuru w’ibinyamakuru AMI, Kurerer’Imana na Kinyamateka muri 1955. Kubera inyandiko ze, Kayibanda yabaye umukangurambaga wa rubanda rwari rwiganjemo abahutu. Nawe yari azi ko rubanda rugufi rukunda ibyo yandika nk’uko yabyivugiye muri Baudoin Paternostre de la Mairieu (Toute ma vie pour vous mes frères! Vie de Grégoire Kayibanda, premier président élu du Rwanda, Editions Tequi, Paris, 1994, P.84). Ni uko Kayibanda yabaye umwe mu bayobozi batekereje, bagategura kandi bakanayobora ukwibohora kw’abanyarwanda muri 1959. Mu byo yaharaniraga harimo ko abayobozi baguma mu cyaro kugirango bayobore begereye abo bayobora, kugirango kandi bajye bashobora kubavugisha no kuba intangarugero. Ku byerekeye ubukungu, Kayibanda yaharaniye ko amasambu ahawe abaturage yakwandikwa mu mategeko kugirango hatazagira abakoresha imico gakondo bakambura rubanda udusambu twabo. Kayibanda yanarwanyije imanza zacibwaga zibogamye, anarwanya umuco wo gukoresha abaturage ku ngufu bakorera ubusa, kimwe n’itotezwa no kuburabuza byakorerwaga cyane cyane abahutu. Abatutsi bamwe babonaga Kayibanda afite ibitekerezo byiza bifuzaga ko Abatutsi bategeka bamwunva mu gihe atazanagamo ubuhezanguni. Ariko bamwe Abatutsi bari batsimbariye ku mico ya cyera bo barabyanze ahubwo mu buryo butunguranye basohora inyandiko bise “Mise au point” yari igenewe abagenzuzi ba loni bari baje mu Rwanda bavuga ko nta kibazo na gito kiri mu butegetsi bw’uRwanda. Kayibanda n’inshuti ze bahise bamagana iyo nyandiko bavuga ko ibeshya ivuga ko ivugira abanyarwanda bose kandi yaravugiraga gusa abatutsi bo mu butegetsi. Byatumye we n’inshuti ze nabo mu kwa gatatu mu 1957 basohora inyandiko yiswe “Manifeste des Bahutu” yari igamije kwerekana ko ibyo iriya “Mise au point” yavugaga bitari ukuri. Ni uko revolisiyo yatangiye, ikaba yari iri mu murongo wo kwibohora kw’ibihugu byari byarakolonijwe bisaba ubwisanzure n’ubwigenge byuzuye. Mu mpera ya 1959 ni bwo Kayibanda yashinze ishyaka rya politiki ryo guharanira ubwisanzure bwa rubanda rugufi rwari rwingajemo Abahutu yise PARMEHUTU ari ryo ryaje kwitwa Muvoma iharanira Demokrasi muri Republika (MDR-PARMEHUTU). Iryo shyaka niryo ryagejeje abanyarwanda ku mpindura y’imiyoborere mu 1959 yakuyeho ubutegetsi bwar cyami bwari bushingiye ku buhake bugasimburwa na Republika yambere yatowe n’abaturage.

Igitabo mwabisangamo :

Gregoire kayibanda pour vous mes freres

N.D.R.L